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Publications of 2023

Vijay Kumar Chattu, Ali Bani-Fatemi, Aaron Howe, Behdin Nowrouzi-Kia

Frances Serrano, Marianne Saragosa, Behdin Nowrouzi-Kia, Lynn Woodford, Jennifer Casole, Basem Gohar

Understanding the experiences and stressors of education workers is critical for making improvements and planning for future emergency situations. Province-specific studies offer valuable information to understand the stressors of returning to the workplace. This study aims to identify the stressors education workers experienced when returning to work after months of school closures. This qualitative data is part of a larger study. Individuals completed a survey including a questionnaire and some open-ended questions in English and French. A total of 2349 respondents completed the qualitative portion of the survey, of which most were women (81%), approximately 44 years of age, and working as teachers (83.9%). The open-ended questions were analyzed using thematic analysis. Seven themes emerged from our analysis: (1) challenges with service provision and using technology; (2) disruption in work–life balance; (3) lack of clear communication and direction from the government and school administration; (4) fear of contracting the virus due to insufficient health/COVID-19 protocols; (5) increase in work demands; (6) various coping strategies to deal with the stressors of working during the COVID-19 pandemic; (7) lessons to be learned from working amid a global pandemic. Education workers have faced many challenges since returning to work. These findings demonstrate the need for improvements such as greater flexibility, training opportunities, support, and communication.

Behdin Nowrouzi-Kia, Pablo Garrido, Basem Gohar, Amin Yazdani, Vijay Kumar Chattu, Ali Bani-Fatemi, Aaron Howe, Andrea Duncan, Maria Paz riquelme, Faizah Abdullah, Sharan Jaswal, Joyce Lo, Yusra Fayyaz, Bushra Alam

The workplace is a vital setting to support positive mental health. Mental health conditions in the workforce contribute to decreased work engagement and participation. There is existing literature on return-to-work (RTW) interventions for individuals with work-related mental health conditions, however, there lacks consensus on their effectiveness. Therefore, the primary aim of this systematic review was to synthesize the literature and evaluate the effectiveness of return-to-work interventions on return-to-work rates, quality of life, and psychological wellbeing for individuals with work-related mental health conditions. Selected articles were organized and identified using the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-analyses (PRISMA) guidelines and the Population/Intervention/Comparison/Outcome (PICO) framework. Quality assessment of the included studies was completed using the Critical Appraisal Skills Programme randomized controlled trials checklist and the Joanna Briggs Institute quasi-experimental studies checklist. A random effects meta-analysis model was performed using DerSimonian-Laird weighting to calculate standard mean difference and risk ratios to assess the impact of RTW interventions on return-to-work rates, absenteeism, stress symptoms, depression symptoms, and quality of life. A total of 28 out of 26,153 articles met the inclusion criteria. Diagnoses for participants in the studies ranged from work-related stress to work-related PTSD following exposure to a psychologically traumatizing event in the workplace. No significant differences were found for the meta-analyses examining return-to-work rates, absenteeism, depression, stress, and quality of life. The most effective interventions were found to be a multi-domain intervention (67% of participants RTW full time) and a health-focused intervention (85% RTW rate). Future research may consider establishing effective interventions to develop programs or policies supporting the RTW of employees and promote mental well-being among employees experiencing work-related mental health conditions.

Labour mobility and subsequent workers migration is an increasing trend worldwide and can be a force that counteracts Canada’s shortage of skilled labour. Supercommuting allows workers facing economic challenges to pursue more financially advantageous work opportunities in other regions. This study aimed to evaluate the “supercommuting” labour mobility model and its impact on long-distance mobile workers’ mental health and wellbeing. We utilized a non-experimental research design using convenience sampling from workers who participated in Blue Branch Inc.’s (Hamilton, Canada) supercommuting labour mobility model. An online questionnaire collected demographic data, work-related data, occupational stress measures related to burnout, and job-related stress data. Data collection was started on 1 April 2021, and of the total 58 participants, the majority (44, 76%) were male, born outside Canada, and had an average age of 32.8 years. Workplace Safety (95%), full-time employment opportunity (95%), career advancement possibility (95%), and income and benefits (94.9%) were found to be the most crucial factors to keep study participants working in their current position. Of the 47 participants who experienced burnout, only one showed severe burnout in each domain (personal, work-related, and colleague-related). There is a great need for preventative burnout programs and supportive employer resources for those who engage in long-distance labour commuting. The study emphasizes the need to encourage policymakers to develop solutions for training future Ontario workers to support mobile employment and long-distance labour commuting.

Healthcare workers have been under a great deal of stress and have been experiencing burnout throughout the COVID-19 pandemic. Among these, healthcare workers are pharmacists who have been instrumental in the fight against the pandemic. This scoping review examined the impact of the pandemic on pharmacists’ mental health and their antecedents using three databases (CINAHL, MEDLINE, and PsycINFO). Eligible studies included primary research articles that examined the mental health antecedents and outcomes among pharmacists during the first two years of the pandemic. We used the Social Ecological Model to categorize antecedents per outcome. The initial search yielded 4165 articles, and 23 met the criteria. The scoping review identified pharmacists experiencing poor mental health during the pandemic, including anxiety, burnout, depression, and job stress. In addition, several individual, interpersonal, organizational, community, and policy-level antecedents were identified. As this review revealed a general decline in pharmacists’ mental health during the pandemic, further research is required to understand the long-term impacts of the pandemic on pharmacists. Furthermore, we recommend practical mitigation strategies to improve pharmacists’ mental health, such as implementing crisis/pandemic preparedness protocols and leadership training to foster a better workplace culture.

Objectives: Human monkeypox virus (MPXV) infection is a recently declared public health emergency of international concern by the World Health Organization. Besides, there is scant literature available on the use of antivirals in MPXV infection. This systematic review compiles all evidence of various antivirals used on their efficacy and safety and summarizes their mechanisms of action.


Methods: A review was done of all original studies mentioning individual patient data on the use of antivirals in patients with MPXV infection.


Results: Of the total 487 non-duplicate studies, 18 studies with 71 individuals were included. Tecovirimat was used in 61 individuals, followed by cidofovir in seven and brincidofovir (BCV) in three individuals. Topical trifluridine was used in four ophthalmic cases in addition to tecovirimat. Of the total, 59 (83.1%) were reported to have complete resolution of symptoms; one was experiencing waxing and waning of symptoms, only one (1.8%) had died, and the others were having a resolution of symptoms. The death was thought unrelated to tecovirimat. Elevated hepatic panels were reported among all individuals treated with BCV (leading to treatment discontinuation) and five treated with tecovirimat.


Conclusion: Tecovirimat is the most used and has proven beneficial in several aggravating cases. No major safety concerns were detected upon its use. Topical trifluridine was used as an adjuvant treatment option along with tecovirimat. BCV and cidofovir were seldom used, with the latter often being used due to the unavailability of tecovirimat. BCV was associated with treatment discontinuation due to adverse events.

Background: The onset of the COVID-19 pandemic has contributed to increased stress among healthcare professionals. Among these healthcare providers are Ontario pharmacists, who are facing new and pre-existing challenges and new stressors since the pandemic.

 

Objectives: This study aimed to understand the stressors and lessons learned by Ontario pharmacists during the pandemic through their lived experiences.

 

Methods: In this descriptive qualitative study, we conducted semi-structured one-on-one interviews with Ontario pharmacists virtually to learn about their stressors and lessons learned during the pandemic. Interviews were transcribed verbatim, then analyzed using thematic analysis. Findings: We reached data saturation after 15 interviews and identified 5 main themes: (1) Communication/miscommunication with the public and other care providers; (2) high workload due to staff shortage and low appreciation/acknowledgement; (3) mismatch in market demand and supply; (4) informational gaps pertaining to the COVID-19 pandemic along with rapid protocol changes; and (5) lessons learned to improve the future of pharmacy practice in Ontario.

 

Discussion: Our study helped us gain a better understanding of the stressors pharmacists faced, their contributions, and the opportunities that arose due to the pandemic.

 

Conclusion: Drawing on these experiences, this study provides recommendations to improve pharmacy practice and increase preparedness for future emergencies.

 Liam Ishaky, Myuri Sivanthan, Mina Tadrous, Behdin Nowrouzi-Kia, Lisa M. McCarthy, Andrew Papadopoulos, Basem Gohar

Muhammad Aaqib Shamim, Bijaya Kumar Padhi, Prakasini Satapathy, Sai D Veeramachaneni, Chandrima Chatterjee, Snehasish Tripathy, Naushaba Akhtar, Anindita Pradhan, Pradeep Dwivedi1, Aroop Mohanty, Alfonso J. Rodriguez-Morales, Ranjit Sah, Ala’a B. Al-Tammemi, Jaffar A. Al-Tawfiq, Behdin Nowrouzi-Kia, Vijay Kumar Chattu

Zoha Zahoor; Andrew Papadopoulos; Behdin Nowrouzi-Kia; Patty Ibrahim; Mina Tadrous; Basem Gohar

 In 2003, the United States saw an epidemic of monkeypox that was later traced back to rodents of West Africa infected with the monkeypox virus (MPXV). Disease in the United States seemed less severe than the smallpox-like disease in the Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC). In this study, researchers analyzed data from Central Africa: two distinct MPXV clades were confirmed by sequencing the genomes of MPXV isolates from Western Africa, the United States, and Central Africa. By comparing open reading frames across MPXV clades, scientists can infer which virus proteins might account for the observed variation in pathogenicity in humans. Monkeypox can be prevented and controlled with a better understanding of MPXV’s molecular etiology and epidemiological and clinical features. In light of the current outbreaks worldwide, we provide updated information on monkeypox for medical professionals in this review.

The purpose of this study was to group and analyze the Practicum Demands Measure© (PDM) data collected over 2 academic years and create a general profile of demands across practicum settings. The data will be used to guide faculty in the most suitable placement of students requiring accommodations for a disability. The study used a secondary analysis design to analyze the 538 participant PDM data collected over the 2017/2018 and 2018/2019 academic years. Most of the sampled students were in fieldwork Level I and worked in mental health settings. The students reported physical demands, such as lifting more than 5kg (65.7%), intermittent sitting (97.6%), and keyboarding (94.6%). They also reported physical environment characteristics, such as exposure to infectious disease (44.6%) and congested working areas (27.5%). Cognitive demands included instant recall (90%) and analytical and clinical reasoning (99.8%). Practicum demands in occupational therapy were similar across other health care profession student placements, such as nursing and physical therapy. Practicum demands need to be studied more extensively to optimize students’ opportunities for success for students requiring accommodations in varied clinical settings.

Understanding and addressing the impacts of both sex and gender on health outcomes is critical to building equitable, sustainable, and healthy societies. The COVID-19 pandemic is no different, as women are disproportionately affected by the current crisis globally. The pandemic’s impact on women has been critical, particularly in the immediate risks associated with their roles on the frontline of health and social care, and in secondary impacts, such as increased exposure to gender-based violence and domestic abuse during extended periods of social separation.

Moreover, the COVID-19 pandemic has also uncovered the disproportionate representation of women in the governance of epidemic management, under-representing ongoing COVID-19 research publications. Despite the World Health Organization Executive Board recognizing the need to include women in decision-making for outbreak preparedness and response, there is still an inadequate representation of women in national and global COVID-19 policy spaces.

Incorporating sex and gender into global health should be seen as a core component of ensuring effective and equitable national and global health systems. To provide continued access to sexual and reproductive health (SRH) services delivery, mental health services, and to secure SRH rights, there is a great need and growing demand for technology-enhanced healthcare delivery systems and digital health platforms (mHealth, Telemedicine, Telehealth services) to address the needs. This collection aims to receive papers addressing health outcomes for women and addressing healthcare inequalities globally, within the context of COVID-19. We seek to publish research focused on addressing these inequalities through effective strategies, successful case scenarios, and promoting women's representation in policy and research spaces.

Parveen Kumar; Benu Chaudhary; Nishant Yadav; Sushma Devi; Ashutosh Pareek; Sujatha Alla; Fnu Kajal; Behdin Nowrouzi-Kia; Vijay Kumar Chattu; Madan Mohan Gupta

Behdin Nowrouzi-Kia; Donna Barker; Jill Stier; Joyce Lo

Vijay Kumar Chattu; Lakshmi Surya Prabha Manem; Behdin Nowrouzi-Kia; Kelly Jane Thompson; Hamid Allahverdipour; Sanni Yaya

 Ada W S Leung; Behdin Nowrouzi-Kia

Translational research encompasses a wide spectrum of concepts, depending on the translation's discipline and focus. From a biological perspective, translational research concerns the translation of knowledge from basic science research into clinical medicine. As Woolf (1) has mentioned, this area of research, the interface between basic science and clinical medicine, is geared towards generating new treatments, such as drugs and invasive procedures, that can be applied clinically and commercially. This area of translational research requires the establishment of a variety of knowledge from genetics and molecular biology, as well as supportive technologies to bring basic science to clinical practice. Thus, the research outcome fosters new techniques and approaches for preventing, diagnosing, and treating diseases necessary for maintaining or improving health (2). From a socio-economical perspective, translation research ensures that the new treatment techniques and approaches reach the people or patients who need them. This area of research typically involves knowledge users, such as healthcare providers, researchers, patients, and the public, an integrative process of knowledge transfer, and methodologies for outcome evaluation. Thus, this area of translational research concerns not only the treatment techniques that are to be translated into clinical practice but also the quality of treatment, such as the patient-clinician relationship, the quality of care, the ease of service access, etc. In other words, the research fosters the multidirectional and multidisciplinary integration of basic research, patient-oriented research, and population-based research, with the long-term aim of improving the public's health (3). In short, regardless of the nature of knowledge transfer, whether biological or socio-economical, the goal of translational research is to close the gap between new scientific discoveries and their endpoint application to clinical practice, interventions, decision-making, and health policy (4, 5).

Rehabilitative interventions are often longitudinal in nature and are implemented through therapeutic interaction in real-life situations as well as virtual reality environments to promote functional recovery. For a new intervention or approach to be successfully translated into clinical practice, the effectiveness of the intervention or approach must first be established through rigorous experimental and/or clinical testing, followed by the implementation and evaluation of the effective intervention and assessment procedures in clinical practice. Thus, the focus of translational research is diverse, covering different aspects as mentioned above. The current research topic highlights four unique studies that have emphasized translational research in clinical practice. Their research spans different focuses, including assessing the design of assistive devices, testing longitudinally throughout a recovery process, optimizing the administrative process of an assessment tool, and evaluating a strategy to facilitate the delivery of health services.

 

The evaluation and refinement of admission practices are pertinent topics for admissions committees. There has been limited research that explored the relationship between applicant admission scores and practicum performance. Our study suggests that practicum performance may demand different skills than achieving high academic standing prior to admission. Continued efforts to identify factors predictive of practicum performance will assist occupational therapy (OT) admissions committees to select the highest caliber applicants who will become future practitioners. This study explored which admission factors predicted competency-based fieldwork evaluation for occupational therapists (CBFE-OT) scores for students enrolled in a Canadian Master of Science in Occupational Therapy (MScOT) program. Using a quasi-experimental ex post facto design, 446 admitted MScOT applicants’ scored admission packages, which included their undergraduate grade point average (GPA), two personal statements, a resumé, and two confidential assessment forms (i.e., letters of reference), were analyzed and then correlated with midterm and final CBFE-OT scores across four practicum placements. Confidential assessment forms were also used for separate correlational analyses. Linear regression analyses were completed for significant correlations. Admission package scores were positively correlated with CBFE-OT scores for the final evaluations of students in physical health settings for their fourth practicum placements (p < .05). Alternatively, GPAs were negatively correlated with CBFE-OT scores (p< .05). Admissions practices need to be refined to include salient factors that predict practicum success.

The World Health Organization announced the outbreak of the Coronavirus disease as a global pandemic on March 11, 2020. Since then, rapid implementation of telehealth approaches into the healthcare system have been evident. The pandemic has drastically impacted the lives of many around the globe and has detrimentally affected our healthcare systems, specifically with the delivery of healthcare. This has had many implications on rehabilitation services such as, occupational therapy, physiotherapy, and speech therapy. The delivery of mental health services remotely may be referred to as teletherapy, telemental health, telepsychiatry, and telepsychology. Telerehabilitation has become a necessity over the course of the pandemic due to safety concerns with COVID-19 transmission. The primary aim of this systematic review protocol is to evaluate the literature on the effect of telerehabilitation on patient outcomes and propose directives for future research based on the evidence reviewed.

Jill Stier; Behdin Nowrouzi-Kia; Markus Ott; Adam Mohamed

Sharan Jaswal, Joyce Lo, Gobika Sithamparanathan, Behdin Nowrouzi-Kia

Behdin Nowrouzi-Kia; B Gohar; G Sithamparanathan; R Y Sun; J Casole

L Ishaky; M Sivanthan; Behdin Nowrouzi-Kia; A Papadopoulos; B Gohar

V K Chattu; Behdin Nowrouzi-Kia; T Sunil; H Allahverdipour

Background: The Indigenous workforce in Canada is challenged by a history of Euro-Canadian colonialism that has presented deleterious health outcomes, including those in the workplace.

 

Objective: The aim of this study was to describe the mental health of Indigenous workers in the workplace.

 

Methods: We used the Canadian Community Health Survey (CCHS) between 2015 to 2016. Data were analyzed using the Public Use Microdata Files to profile the workplace mental health characteristics of First Nation Canadians (n = 6,297) and Canadians (n = 84,155). We utilized secondary data analysis design. The analyses included descriptive statistics (e.g., means and standard deviations) of self-reported mood disorders (depression, bipolar, mania, dysthymia), anxiety (phobia, OCD, panic) and occupational factors (e.g., demographic, days off work due to an acute mental health condition, job type, and job stress) in indigenous peoples living off-reserve and other Aboriginal settlements in the provinces.

 

Results: We examined the indigenous cohort between the ages of 18–64 who were employed. The sample was 53.1% male, married (34.8%), and obtained a post-secondary diploma or university degree (57.9%). The study reported statistically significant gender and age differences across mood and anxiety disorders (p < 0.05), job stress (p < 0.05) and workload (p < 0.05).

 

Conclusion: To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study to describe the work profile of indigenous populations in Canada across various occupational mental health (e.g., mood disorders, anxiety) and demographic (e.g., age, education attainment) outcomes.

Backgrounds: Healthcare workers have experienced considerable stress and burnout during the COVID-19 pandemic. Among these healthcare workers are medical laboratory professionals and rehabilitation specialists, specifically, occupational therapists, and physical therapists, who all perform critical services for the functioning of a healthcare system.

Purpose: This rapid review examined the impact of the pandemic on the mental health of medical laboratory professionals (MLPs), occupational therapists (OTs) and physical therapists (PTs) and identified gaps in the research necessary to understand the impact of the pandemic on these healthcare workers.

Methods: We systematically searched “mental health” among MLPs, OTs and PTs using three databases (PsycINFO, MEDLINE, and CINAHL).

Results: Our search yielded 8887 articles, 16 of which met our criteria. Our results revealed poor mental health among all occupational groups, including burnout, depression, and anxiety. Notably, MLPs reported feeling forgotten and unappreciated compared to other healthcare groups. In general, there is a dearth of literature on the mental health of these occupational groups before and during the pandemic; therefore, unique stressors are not yet uncovered.

Conclusions: Our results highlight poor mental health outcomes for these occupational groups despite the dearth of research. In addition to more research among these groups, we recommend that policymakers focus on improving workplace cultures and embed more intrinsic incentives to improve job retention and reduce staff shortage. In future emergencies, providing timely and accurate health information to healthcare workers is imperative, which could also help reduce poor mental health outcomes.

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Shrestha, Abhigan Babu, Aashna Mehta, Pashupati Pokharel, Aakash Mishra, Lukash Adhikari, Sajina Shrestha, Randhir Sagar Yadav, Surakshya Khanal, Ranjit Sah, Behdin Nowrouzi-Kia, Bijaya Kumar Padhi, and Vijay Kumar Chattu.

Zoha Zahoor; Andrew Papadopoulos; Behdin Nowrouzi-Kia; Patty Ibrahim; Mina Tadrous; Basem Gohar

Background: Long COVID syndrome is a significant cause of morbidity in COVID-19 patients who remain symptomatic with varied clinical presentations beyond three weeks. Furthermore, the relevance of considering cardiovascular outcomes in post-COVID-19 syndrome is important in the current COVID-19 pandemic; (2)

 

Methods: The Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) guidelines were followed for this systematic review and meta-analysis. Systematic searches were conducted from multiple databases without language restrictions until October 8, 2022, to find studies evaluating cardiovascular outcomes such as arrhythmias, myocardium and pericardium diseases, coronary vessel disease, and thromboembolic disorders in post-COVID cases. The pooled odds ratio (OR), and standard mean difference (SMD) with their corresponding 95% confidence intervals (CI) were computed to find the association; (3)

 

Results: Altogether, seven studies with a total of 8,126,462 (cases: 1,321,305; controls: 6,805,157) participants were included in the meta-analysis. Pooled odds ratios of cardiovascular outcomes were significantly higher in post-COVID cases (OR > 1, p < 0.05) than in controls. However, the mortality (OR: 4.76, p = 0.13), and heart rate variability (SMD: −0.06, p = 0.91) between cases and controls were not statistically significant; (4)

 

Conclusions: Significant cardiovascular sequelae in long COVID syndrome highlight the importance of careful cardiac monitoring of COVID-19 patients in the post-COVID phase to address cardiovascular complications as soon as possible; larger-scale prospective studies are required for accurate estimation.

Several factors have been identified to influence the registration and retention of apprentices in the construction trades. Employer engagement is a key factor to promote growth in apprenticeships in the construction trades as participation rates continue to be low among small-to-medium-sized employers. In this study, we evaluated the effectiveness of the Ontario Electrical League’s (OEL) employer mentorship program through the perspectives of small-to-medium-sized employers using a qualitative approach. Two focus groups were conducted virtually with 11 employers. Focus group audio transcripts were recorded and transcribed for thematic analysis. Themes were generated using a data-driven approach to examine the relationships between mentorship program outcomes and perspectives on industry-related recruitment and retention barriers. Three themes were identified: (a) long-term apprentice recruitment and retention challenges; (b) equity and mental health in the workplace; and (c) industry challenges and mentorship program outcomes. Generally, this sample of employers appreciated the value of the OEL mentorship program through praise of the continued educational support, employer management expertise, hiring resources, and apprentice onboarding tools despite industry barriers in trade stigma, equity and mental health in the workplace, and recruitment and retention challenges. Industry partners should work with these small-to-medium-sized employers to develop workplace initiatives and engage external partners to provide ongoing apprenticeship mentorship support to address the recruitment and retention barriers identified in this study.

Background: The onset of the COVID-19 pandemic has contributed to increased stress among healthcare professionals. Among these healthcare providers are Ontario pharmacists, who are facing new and pre-existing challenges and new stressors since the pandemic.

 

Objectives: This study aimed to understand the stressors and lessons learned by Ontario pharmacists during the pandemic through their lived experiences.

 

Methods: In this descriptive qualitative study, we conducted semi-structured one-on-one interviews with Ontario pharmacists virtually to learn about their stressors and lessons learned during the pandemic. Interviews were transcribed verbatim, then analyzed using thematic analysis

 

Findings: We reached data saturation after 15 interviews and identified 5 main themes: (1) Communication/miscommunication with the public and other care providers; (2) high workload due to staff shortage and low appreciation/acknowledgement; (3) mismatch in market demand and supply; (4) informational gaps pertaining to the COVID-19 pandemic along with rapid protocol changes; and (5) lessons learned to improve the future of pharmacy practice in Ontario.

 

Discussion:
Our study helped us gain a better understanding of the stressors pharmacists faced, their contributions, and the opportunities that arose due to the pandemic.


Conclusion: Drawing on these experiences, this study provides recommendations to improve pharmacy practice and increase preparedness for future emergencies.

Aaron S. Howe; Joyce Lo; Sharan Jaswal; Ali Bani-Fatemi; Vijay Kumar Chattu; Behdin Nowrouzi-Kia

Shamim MA, Padhi BK, Satapathy P, Veeramachaneni SD, Chatterjee C, Tripathy S, Akhtar N, Pradhan A, Dwivedi P, Mohanty A, Rodriguez-Morales AJ, Sah R, Al-Tammemi AB, Al-Tawfiq JA, Nowrouzi-Kia B, Chattu VK.

Liam Ishaky; Myuri Sivanthan; Mina Tadrous; Behdin Nowrouzi-Kia; Lisa M. McCarthy; Andrew Papadopoulos; Basem Gohar

Arvind Goswami; Harmanpreet Singh Kapoor; Rajesh Kumar Jangir; Caspar Njoroge Ngigi; Behdin Nowrouzi-Kia; Vijay Kumar Chattu

Objectives: Human monkeypox virus (MPXV) infection is a recently declared public health emergency of international concern by the World Health Organization. Besides, there is scant literature available on the use of antivirals in MPXV infection. This systematic review compiles all evidence of various antivirals used on their efficacy and safety and summarizes their mechanisms of action.

 

Methods: A review was done of all original studies mentioning individual patient data on the use of antivirals in patients with MPXV infection.

 

Results: Of the total 487 non-duplicate studies, 18 studies with 71 individuals were included. Tecovirimat was used in 61 individuals, followed by cidofovir in seven and brincidofovir (BCV) in three individuals. Topical trifluridine was used in four ophthalmic cases in addition to tecovirimat. Of the total, 59 (83.1%) were reported to have complete resolution of symptoms; one was experiencing waxing and waning of symptoms, only one (1.8%) had died, and the others were having a resolution of symptoms. The death was thought unrelated to tecovirimat. Elevated hepatic panels were reported among all individuals treated with BCV (leading to treatment discontinuation) and five treated with tecovirimat.

 

Conclusion: Tecovirimat is the most used and has proven beneficial in several aggravating cases. No major safety concerns were detected upon its use. Topical trifluridine was used as an adjuvant treatment option along with tecovirimat. BCV and cidofovir were seldom used, with the latter often being used due to the unavailability of tecovirimat. BCV was associated with treatment discontinuation due to adverse events.

Healthcare workers have been under a great deal of stress and have been experiencing burnout throughout the COVID-19 pandemic. Among these, healthcare workers are pharmacists who have been instrumental in the fight against the pandemic. This scoping review examined the impact of the pandemic on pharmacists’ mental health and their antecedents using three databases (CINAHL, MEDLINE, and PsycINFO). Eligible studies included primary research articles that examined the mental health antecedents and outcomes among pharmacists during the first two years of the pandemic. We used the Social Ecological Model to categorize antecedents per outcome. The initial search yielded 4165 articles, and 23 met the criteria. The scoping review identified pharmacists experiencing poor mental health during the pandemic, including anxiety, burnout, depression, and job stress. In addition, several individual, interpersonal, organizational, community, and policy-level antecedents were identified. As this review revealed a general decline in pharmacists’ mental health during the pandemic, further research is required to understand the long-term impacts of the pandemic on pharmacists. Furthermore, we recommend practical mitigation strategies to improve pharmacists’ mental health, such as implementing crisis/pandemic preparedness protocols and leadership training to foster a better workplace culture.

Background: Global warming is one of the most severe environmental problems humans are facing now. This study aims to assess the impacts of economic growth, trade openness, urbanization, and energy consumption on carbon emissions in India;

 

 Methodology: In this longitudinal study, data have been collected from World Development Indicators and Our World in Data from 1980 to 2021. Two models have been used in this study, which are ARDL and the random forest model, which is a machine learning algorithm that uses the aggregated prediction for final prediction

 

 Results: The ARDL model revealed that the variables were cointegrated. In the short run, CO2 emissions at previous lag, economic growth, and trade openness negatively correlated with CO2 emissions, while energy consumption and urbanization exhibited a positive correlation. In the long run, energy consumption, urbanization, and trade openness positively correlated with CO2 emissions, while economic growth and CO2 emissions at previous lag demonstrated a negative correlation. The high value of the R2 and low values of RMSE and M.A.E. in the Random Forest model shows the model’s fitness;

 

Conclusions: The study’s findings have been briefly discussed, and a few suggestions have been provided based on the results.

Frances Serrano; Marianne Saragosa; Behdin Nowrouzi-Kia; Lynn Woodford; Jennifer Casole; Basem Gohar

Nowrouzi-Kia Behdin, Pablo Garrido, Basem Gohar, Amin Yazdani, Vijay Kumar Chattu, Ali Bani-Fatemi, Aaron Howe, Andrea Duncan, Maria Paz Riquelme, Faizah Abdullah, Sharan Jaswal, Joyce Lo, Yusra Fayyaz, and Bushra Alam.

Understanding the experiences and stressors of education workers is critical for making improvements and planning for future emergency situations. Province-specific studies offer valuable information to understand the stressors of returning to the workplace. This study aims to identify the stressors education workers experienced when returning to work after months of school closures. This qualitative data is part of a larger study. Individuals completed a survey including a questionnaire and some open-ended questions in English and French. A total of 2349 respondents completed the qualitative portion of the survey, of which most were women (81%), approximately 44 years of age, and working as teachers (83.9%). The open-ended questions were analyzed using thematic analysis. Seven themes emerged from our analysis: (1) challenges with service provision and using technology; (2) disruption in work–life balance; (3) lack of clear communication and direction from the government and school administration; (4) fear of contracting the virus due to insufficient health/COVID-19 protocols; (5) increase in work demands; (6) various coping strategies to deal with the stressors of working during the COVID-19 pandemic; (7) lessons to be learned from working amid a global pandemic. Education workers have faced many challenges since returning to work. These findings demonstrate the need for improvements such as greater flexibility, training opportunities, support, and communication.

The workplace is a vital setting to support positive mental health. Mental health conditions in the workforce contribute to decreased work engagement and participation. There is existing literature on return-to-work (RTW) interventions for individuals with work-related mental health conditions, however, there lacks consensus on their effectiveness. Therefore, the primary aim of this systematic review was to synthesize the literature and evaluate the effectiveness of return-to-work interventions on return-to-work rates, quality of life, and psychological wellbeing for individuals with work-related mental health conditions. Selected articles were organized and identified using the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-analyses (PRISMA) guidelines and the Population/Intervention/Comparison/Outcome (PICO) framework. Quality assessment of the included studies was completed using the Critical Appraisal Skills Programme randomized controlled trials checklist and the Joanna Briggs Institute quasi-experimental studies checklist. A random effects meta-analysis model was performed using DerSimonian-Laird weighting to calculate standard mean difference and risk ratios to assess the impact of RTW interventions on return-to-work rates, absenteeism, stress symptoms, depression symptoms, and quality of life. A total of 28 out of 26,153 articles met the inclusion criteria. Diagnoses for participants in the studies ranged from work-related stress to work-related PTSD following exposure to a psychologically traumatizing event in the workplace. No significant differences were found for the meta-analyses examining return-to-work rates, absenteeism, depression, stress, and quality of life. The most effective interventions were found to be a multi-domain intervention (67% of participants RTW full time) and a health-focused intervention (85% RTW rate). Future research may consider establishing effective interventions to develop programs or policies supporting the RTW of employees and promote mental well-being among employees experiencing work-related mental health conditions.
 

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